State of California Board of Education Standards Chemistry - Grades Nine Through Twelve

**UNIT 1: Water **

5. Acids, bases, and salts are three classes of compounds that form ions in water solutions. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. *Students know *the observable properties of acids, bases, and salt solutions.

b. *Students know *acids are hydrogen-ion-donating and bases are hydrogen-ion-accepting substances.

c. *Students know *strong acids and bases fully dissociate and weak acids and bases partially dissociate.

d. *Students know *how to use the pH scale to characterize acid and base solutions.

e.* *Students know *the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid-base definitions.

f.* *Students know *how to calculate pH from the hydrogen-ion concentration.

g.* *Students know *buffers stabilize pH in acid-base reactions.

6. Solutions are homogenous mixtures of two or more substances. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. *Students know *the definitions of *solute *and *solvent. *

b. *Students know *how to describe the dissolving process at the molecular level by using the concept of random molecular motion.

c. *Students know *temperature, pressure, and surface area affect the dissolving process.

d. *Students know *how to calculate the concentration of a solute in terms of grams per liter, molarity, parts per million, and percent composition.

f.* *Students know *how molecules in a solution are separated or purified by the methods of chromatography and distillation.

7. Energy is exchanged or transformed in all chemical reactions and physical changes of matter. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. *Students know *how to describe temperature and heat flow in terms of the motion of molecules (or atoms).

b. *Students know *chemical processes can either release (exothermic) or absorb (endothermic) thermal energy.

c. *Students know *energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates or melts.

**UNIT 2: Materials and Resources **

1. The periodic table displays the elements in increasing atomic number and shows how periodicity of the physical and chemical properties of the elements relates to atomic structure. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. *Students know *how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its atomic number and atomic mass.

b. *Students know *how to use the periodic table to identify metals, semimetals, non-metals, and halogens.

c. *Students know *how to use the periodic table to identify alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metals, trends in ionization energy, electronegativity, and the relative sizes of ions and atoms.

d. *Students know *how to use the periodic table to determine the number of electrons available for bonding.

e. *Students know *the nucleus of the atom is much smaller than the atom yet contains most of its mass.

g.* *Students know *how to relate the position of an element in the periodic table to its quantum electron configuration and to its reactivity with other elements in the table.

h.* *Students know *the experimental basis for Thomson's discovery of the electron, Rutherford's nuclear atom, Millikan's oil drop experiment, and Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect.

i.* *Students know *the experimental basis for the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure and the historical importance of the Bohr model of the atom.

3. The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions leads to the principle of conservation of matter and the ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. *Students know *how to describe chemical reactions by writing balanced equations.

b. *Students know *the quantity *one mole *is set by defining one mole of carbon 12 atoms to have a mass of exactly 12 grams.

c. *Students know *one mole equals 6.02 x 10 23 particles (atoms or molecules).

d. *Students know *how to determine the molar mass of a molecule from its chemical formula and a table of atomic masses and how to convert the mass of a molecular substance to moles, number of particles, or volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure.

e. *Students know *how to calculate the masses of reactants and products in a chemical reaction from the mass of one of the reactants or products and the relevant atomic masses.

g.* *Students know *how to identify reactions that involve oxidation and reduction and how to balance oxidation-reduction reactions.

7. Energy is exchanged or transformed in all chemical reactions and physical changes of matter. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. *Students know *how to describe temperature and heat flow in terms of the motion of molecules (or atoms).

b. *Students know *chemical processes can either release (exothermic) or absorb (endothermic) thermal energy.

c. *Students know *energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates or melts.

7. Energy is exchanged or transformed in all chemical reactions and physical changes of matter. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. *Students know *how to describe temperature and heat flow in terms of the motion of molecules (or atoms).

b. *Students know *chemical processes can either release (exothermic) or absorb (endothermic) thermal energy.

c. *Students know *energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates or melts.

10. The bonding characteristics of carbon allow the formation of many different organic molecules of varied sizes, shapes, and chemical properties and provide the biochemical basis of life. As a basis for understanding this concept:

a. *Students know *large molecules (polymers), such as proteins, nucleic acids, and starch, are formed by repetitive combinations of simple subunits.

b. *Students know *the bonding characteristics of carbon that result in the formation of a large variety of structures ranging from simple hydrocarbons to complex polymers and biological molecules.

d.* *Students know *the system for naming the ten simplest linear hydrocarbons and isomers that contain single bonds, simple hydrocarbons with double and triple bonds, and simple molecules that contain a benzene ring.

e.* *Students know *how to identify the functional groups that form the basis of alcohols, ketones, ethers, amines, esters, aldehydes, and organic acids.

f.* *Students know *the R-group structure of amino acids and know how they combine to form the polypeptide backbone structure of proteins.